Various Recipes, Tips and Articles on Synthesizing

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Various Recipes, Tips and Articles on Synthesizing

Post by Helladamnleet » Thu Aug 24, 2017 10:05 pm

Methcathinone ("Cat") / Ephedrone ("Jeff").
===========================================

Initially reported as a street drug in the former USSR as ephedrone
[1]. Reports of the use of "Jeff" leading to "numerous" overdose deaths
were, it seems, covered up by the former Russian authorities. It has been
banned in the USA after several labs were seized in Michigan. It was sold
as "Cat", presumably named after the African shrub Khat (catha
edulis), which contains cathinone [2]. Methcathinone is related to
cathinone as methamphetamine is related to amphetamine, i.e. by
N-methyl substitution.

Reliable reports of effects in humans are not known to me. A recent short
letter [4] in the Journal of the American Medical Association seems to me to
simply to repeat assertions made in the American popular press. In the letter,
it is said that users describe "Cat" as better than cocaine and meth.
"Typical" doses are described as 0.5-1g and the effects described as lasting
six days.

This seems to me to be unlikely. What has been reported may well be
equivalent to high dose, methamphetamine abuse on the "speed freak" pattern
and is probably *not* typical.

Animal studies [2] suggest methcathinone has ED50 of 1.9uM/kg
(0.39mg/kg) , when compared to cocaine's 7.6uM/kg (2.6 mg/kg). This would
make it *more* potent than cocaine by six times in the rat and
suggests the human figure of ten times cocaine potency in the human reported
on USENET as been given on Belgium television is not unrealistic. Indeed, this
would put it in the same range as methamphetamine, which it may well closely
resemble.

Personal communication suggests it may well be simply equivalent to
methamphetamine. The bottom line may well be that most CNS stimulants
are the same, whether they be cocaine, methamphetamine, amphetamine,
4-methylaminorex or methcathinone. Differing the route of administration is
likely to have more effect. Smoking or injecting such drugs leads to rapid
build-up of the drug in the blood stream and an intense "rush". This route
is more dangerous from a toxicologic point of view and likely to lead to
compulsive use. Occasional oral use in social situations is likely
to be the least harmful. Some people may find CNS stimulants psychologically
addictive.

Synthesis [1]

A 2000-mL Erlenmeyer flask, equipped with a magnetic stirring bar, was
charged with methylene chloride (200 mL), acetic acid (10 mL) water (100 mL),
potassium permanganate (2g) and ephedrine hydrochloride (2g). The solution was
stirred at room temperature for 30 min. This was followed by the
addition of sufficient sodium hydrogen sulfite to reduce the
precipitated manganese dioxide. The aqueous phase was made basic
with 5N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and the methylene chloride was
separated. The organic layer was extracted with 0.5N sulfuric acid
(H2SO4). Isolation of the acid layer followed by basification with
sodium bicarbonate and extraction with methylene chloride (50 mL,
three times), removed the product into the organic phase. The solvent
was concentrated by rotary evaporation, followed by column
chromatography through neutral alumina with methylene chloride.
Solvent removal through rotary evaporation produced a colorless
liquid which was disolved in hexane. Gaseous hydrochloric acid was
bubbled into the hexane to precipitate the amine hydrochloride to
produce a 1-g (50%) yield of 2-methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-one
hydrochloride.

Ephedrone, like methamphetamine, processes one asymmetric center.
Depending upon the synthetic precursor, l-ephedrine (1R,2S) or
d-pseudoephedrine (1S,2R), the product expected would be d-ephedrone
(2S) or l-ephedrone (2R), respectively. However, depending on the
heat of the reaction or harsh extraction conditions the enolizable
ketone will result in a racemic d,l-ephedrone.

Synthesis [3]

A solution composed of 0.99g of sodium dichromate and 133g of
concentrated sulfuric acid dissolved in 4.46 cc of water is added
slowly with stirring to 1.65g of l-ephedrine dissolved in 4.7 cc of
water and 0.55 cc of concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature.
The mixture is stirred at room temperature for an additional 4 to 6
hours and then made alkaline with sodium hydroxide soloution. the
aqueous mixture is extracted with two volumes of chloroform and then
with two volumes of ether. The organic extracts containing the free
base of 1-a-methylaminoprophenone are combined, treated with an
excess of dry hydrogen chloride and the solvents evaporated. The
residual 1-a-methylaminopropiophenone hydrochloride is stirred with
petroleum ether, collected and purified by dissolving in ethanol and
reprecipitating with ether. m.p. 182-184 o C.

(1) Zingel, K.Y., Dovensky, W., Crossman, A. and Allen, A.,
"Ephedrone: 2-Methylamino-1-Phenylpropane-1-One (Jeff)," Journal of
Forensic Sciences, v. 36, No.3, May 1991, pp.915-920

(2) Young, R. and R.A. Glennon. "Cocaine-Stimulus Generalization to
Two New Designer Drugs: Methcathinone and 4-Methylaminorex"
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 45(1) 229-231, 1993

(3) Glennon, R.A., Yousif, M., Kalix, P. "Methcathinone: A new and
potent amphetamine-like agent." Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
26:547-5451, 1987.

(3) British Patent, 768,772 (1954).

(4) Goldstone, M.S., "Cat - Methcathinone - A New Drug of Abuse" Journal
of the American Medical Association v269 no 19 p2508 (letter) 1993

Methcathinone

Preparing the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine solution:

Method A:
Add enough water to completely dissolve pure ephedrine or
pseudoephedrine.

Method B:
Wash sudaphed tablets in cold water until most (it's impossible
to get all of it) of the red coating is gone. Put the tablets
in hot water, heat them to boiling, and stir until the tablets
have completely dissolved. Filter off the liquid.

The amount of water the (pseudo-)ephedrine [I'll call it
ephedrine from now on for simplicity] is dissolved in is not too
important - it should be as little as possible, but at least as
much as the amount of sulfuric acid that is added later (to
insure to that the potassium dichromate dissolves).
To this aqueous mixture add 0.62 grams of potassium dichromate
for every gram of ephedrine in the solution. If you used
sudaphed tablets, figure by the theoretical amount in
solution (number of tablets X content of each tablet). Slowly
add 3ml Sulfuric for each gram ephedrine, stirring as you add
it.

Let react for 30-60 minutes. The color should go from a bright
red/orange to a dark color (a mixture of green and orange from
the two ionization states of the chromium).
Basify the solution with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution
until you see the solution become a bright green (green with a
white precipitate - the methcathinone). This happens above pH
8. Try not to add too much hydroxide (if you do the solution
becomes black and there is probably some decomposition of the
methcathinone).

Extract 3-4 times with naptha (add the naptha, shake it up,
pour off as much naptha as you can - but DON'T get ANY reaction
mixture in the extracts!). Use as much naptha as would equal
about 50-100 percent of the reaction mixture.

Quickly add the extracts to 25ml of hydrochloric acid, diluted
1 part 36% HCl to 4-5 parts water. Shake the mixture, extract
off the aqueous (lower) portion. This is an acid solution of
the methcathinone. [you may want to extract a second time with
HCl to get a slightly higher yield, a 3rd time adds nothing.]
Evaporate the mixture under low to medium heat (preferably
under a vacuum) until it becomes thick. Add acetone and stir
it a little. if the mixture doesn't become white (crystalline)
right away, it hasn't been evaporated enough. Continue
evaporating and adding acetone until it does. Be careful not
to burn the thick mixture (adding acetone helps keep the
temperature down).

After getting crystals/precipitate, cover the mixture tightly
and put in a freezer for 15 minutes. Remove from the freezer,
filter the crystals off and wash with a small amount of cold
acetone.
[If the crystals are less than white, you may want to purify
them by boiling and stirring them in acetone again, cooling
the mixture and refiltering as described above.]

The white crystals/powder is methcathinone HCL. I wouldn't
take more than 20mg for a first dose, and I wouldn't take it if
I had a history of heart disease or stroke in the family, or if
I had high blood pressure. Really, really habit forming. Very,
very pleasurable. BE CAREFUL. Don't introduce this stuff to
kids or sell it or I will personally hunt you down.

NOTES:
This synthesis is very forgiving. Substitutions of potassium
hydroxide for sodium hydroxide, sodium dichromate for potassium
dichromate and similar subsitution will not have an impact. I
wouldn't substitute anything for the sulfuric acid, however.
HCl is used to make the drug salt because it is so easy to
evaporate the excess off. Any method of making drug salts you
are familiar with should be satisfactory.
Ether works a little better than naptha, but it's more
dangerous. I stay away from it.

1) When dissolving the ephedrine don't use 'as little amount of water as
possible' as the instructions say. This will lead to a very thick reaction
mixture. When extracting with naphta this thickness will prevent separation
of layers. The naphta will stay in suspension and the naphta that does
separate will not contain high amounts of CAT. This leads to unacceptably
low yields. Use about 10 ml. of water per gram of dissolved ephedrine. Do
not use tap-water, get de-mineralised water. Trace amounts of minerals will
inhibit the reaction.
2) Add the sulphuric acid *very slowly*. If you don't, local concentrations
will get too high, causing the ephedrine to break down. Stir well while
adding the H2SO4.
3) This is the most important omission: The whole reaction mixture has to
be cooled while basifying it with Sodium hydroxyde. The heat developed
during this stage will cause practicaly all the CAT to break down if you
don't. The best way to cool it is as follows: Place the reaction mixture
in an ice-bath 10 minutes before adding the NaOH. Then, just before adding
the NaOH, chuck a handfull of salt over the ice (NOT in the reaction
mixture!) This will cause the temperature to drop another couple of
degrees, ensuring a good cooling.
4) Use a magnetic stirring device troughout the whole procedure.
5) When extracting the CAT from the naphta with the HCl use a 20%
solution in stead of the mentioned 10% (approx.)
6) When evaporating the excess amounts of water (preferably under vacuum)
do not let the temperature exceed 70 degrees C. (approx 150 F.) Again, the
high temperature would cause the CAT to disintegrate. :-(

If you follow these additional comments, you should be able to have success!

The anonymous chemist.

MAKING CAT (METHCATHINONE)

For a more complete description of how cat is made read "Secrets of Meth-
amphetamine Manufacture" (Third Edition), available from Loompanics Unlimited,
PO Box 1197 Port Townsend, WA 98368 USA. Eye protection is needed and this is
done in a well-ventilated area. AT LEAST a year of college chemistry lab
experience is needed to realize the dangers involved here. This article is for
information purposes only.

Cat (METHCATHINONE) is made by oxidizing EPHEDRINE, while METHAMPHETAMINE is
made by reducing EPHEDRINE. Cat is best made by using CHROME in the +6
oxidation state as the oxidizer. Any of the common hexavalent CHROME salts
can be used as the oxidizer in this reaction. Some of these are CHROME
TRIOXIDE (CrO3), SODIUM or POTASSIUM CHROMATE (Na2CrO4), and SODIUM or
POTASSIUM DICHROMATE (Na2Cr2O7). All of these chemicals are very common.
CHROME TRIOXIDE is used in chrome plating.

First the chemist dissolves EPHEDRINE pills containing a total of 25 grams
of EPHEDRINE HYDROCHLORIDE or EPHEDRINE SULFATE in distilled water. EPHEDRINE
pills usually contain 25mg each of EPHEDRINE so 1000 pills would be needed.
Grinding them up isn't necessary. Let them sit overnight or shake the
solution hard for a while. When they're dissolved bring the solution to a
gentle boil while constantly stirring so none of it burns. As soon as it
starts boiling remove it from the heat and pour through 3 coffee filters
layered together to filter out the unwanted filler crap. Usually it is
necessary to hold the filters like a bag with the liquid that didn't go
through and gently squeeze to get the liquid to go through. The result is an
almost totally clear liquid which is the EPHEDRINE extract in water. Throw the
mush left in the filter away.

The EPHEDRINE extract is poured into any convenient glass container. Next,
75 grams of any of the above mentioned CHROMIUM compounds is added. They
dissolve easily to form a reddish or orange colored solution. Finally,
CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID (it usually comes as 96-98%) is carefully added.
If CrO3 is being used, 21 ml is enough. If one of the CHROMATES is being used,
42 ml is needed. These chemicals are thoroughly mixed together and allowed
to sit for several hours with occasional stirring.

After several hours LYE solution (1 part water, 1 part LYE) is very slowly
and carefully added dropwise with strong stirring until the solution is
strongly basic (pH 11 or more). This strong stirring is to make sure the cat
is converted to the free base.

Next, TOLUENE is used to extract the cat. Usually this is done with a sep
funnel (separatory funnel, which is a flask with a funnel-shaped bottom and
a stopcock (valve) on the very bottom. Sep funnels are used for separating
liquids by opening the valve on the bottom and letting the bottom-most layer
of liquid drain out.) but a regular glass bottle should be fine but using a
plastic cap wouldn't be good. For safety, the bottle would need to be "burped"
often anyway to make sure no gasses build up in it. A large eyedropper-type
tool could be used to efficiently remove the cat layer. A couple hundred ml's
of TOLUENE is added and the container is strongly shaken to make sure the all
of the cat free base gets into the TOLUENE layer. Shake until it resembles
milk (fine suspended globules of TOLUENE within the water layer). Shake really
hard, then allow it to separate. Insufficent shaking will result in poor yield
with some undissolved cat base remaining in the spent sludge layer. The
TOLUENE layer should be clear to pale yellow in color. The water layer should
be orange mixed with green. The green may settle out as a heavy sludge. The
water layer is thrown away and the TOLUENE layer is washed once with water and
then poured into another container. ("Washed" here means that water is added
and the mixture shaken again and separated. The cat free base stays in the
TOLUENE layer because it doesn't dissolve in water. Any remaining
water-soluble impurities are dissolved into the water layer and not the
TOLUENE layer and thus they're "washed" out.)

The cat free base now must be converted to cat salt (METHCATHINONE HCL).
Here are 2 methods for doing this.
METHOD 1
~~~~~~~~
Dry HCL gas is made and bubbled through the TOLUENE solution to turn the cat
free base into cat salt (METHCATHINONE HCL). A bottle is selected for holding
the gas-producing mixture and a 1-hole stopper will be put in the top of the
bottle. One end of a J-shaped glass tube (about 1/4 inch diameter) is pushed
into the stopper. This glass tube will reach from the top of the gas-producing
bottle down into the bottle holding the TOLUENE-cat mixture. It should reach
the bottom of the mixture. Usually a sep funnel is used to add SULFURIC ACID
to the gas-producing mixture through a second hole in the stopper to keep gas
flowing. If one doesn't have access to a sep funnel it should be possible to
take the stopper out of the gas-producing bottle just long enough to add a
little SULFURIC ACID when it's needed to keep gas flowing. Place 200 grams of
TABLE SALT into the gas-producing bottle. 35% CONCENTRATED HYDROCHLORIC ACID
(reagent grade) is added and they are mixed into a paste. The surface of the
paste should be rough with lots of holes poked into it for good gas
production. About 1 ml of CONCENTRATED (96-98%) SULFURIC ACID is added to the
paste. This dehydrates the HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produces HYDROGEN CHLORIDE
GAS (** DO NOT BREATHE THIS GAS! **). This gas goes out of the gas-producing
bottle through the glass tube and bubbles through the TOLUENE-cat solution
turning cat free base into cat salt. The cat salt should appear as crystals
and after a while the solution should be thick with them. The crystals are
recovered by pouring through a filter. The crystals are then dried by
evaporating the TOLUENE with gentle heat or under a vacuum. Voila. Pure
METHCATHINONE-HCL.

METHOD 2
~~~~~~~~
That was the "ideal" method. The practical method is to dump the base/solvent
solution into a container, add an amount of DILUTE HCl, shake, shake, shake,
measure pH, if it is greater than 7 (pH above 7 is basic), add more acid,
shake, shake, shake, and check pH again. Keep it up until the pH is low,
staying well below 7 (pH below 7 is acidic), then remove the solvent layer and
keep for reuse. Add BAKING SODA to the water layer a little at a time until it
stops bubbling when more is added. Check the pH, make sure it is 7 (neutral)
or higher. The water is now evaporated away on non-plastic plates or pans and
the dried METHCATHINONE HCL can be scraped off with a razor blade. The
METHCATHINONE HCl has a trace of SODIUM CHLORIDE (TABLE SALT) and an even
smaller trace of SODIUM BICARBONATE (BAKING SODA). The BAKING SODA combines
with the excess HCl to become TABLE SALT. This practical method avoids the
mess of producing HCl gas. HCl is a white gas that burns your eyes and nose
really badly should you breathe it. It converts upon contact with water into
HYDROCHLORIC ACID, so if you don't want HYDROCHLORIC ACID in your eyes, nose,
lungs, don't breathe it!

Small amounts of TABLE SALT and BAKING SODA in the cat will go unnoticed. The
ideal method can be used if a source of compressed HCl GAS is found. It is
sold in lab cylinders by chem supply houses and is not watched by the DEA.
Just stick on a regulator, affix the rubber hose with a glass extension for
submersion in the solvent, and open the valve to expel the gas through the
solvent to produce PURE cat HCl.

_____________________________________________________________________________
SUMMARY
~~~~~~~
Ephedrine is oxidized to produce methcathinone. The methcathinone is then
converted to the free base for separation from the rest of the unwanted crap
mixed with it. The free base dissolves in toluene and not in water whereas the
unwanted crap dissolves in water and not in toluene. Since water and toluene
separate into 2 layers the toluene layer containing the cat free base is saved
and the water layer thrown out. The toluene could probably be evaporated
leaving crystals of cat free base which could probably be smoked but I haven't
heard of anyone smoking it nor have I heard of its effects on the human body.
The cat free base is converted to cat salt using dilute hydrochloric acid or
anhydrous HCL gas. Cat salt is soluble in water and not in toluene, just the
opposite of the free base. Using HCL gas the salt produced has no water layer
to dissolve in so it crystalizes out. Using dilute HCL the salt leaves the
toluene layer as before but has a water layer (the water diluting the HCL) to
dissolve in. This water layer is saved and the water evaporated, leaving
methcathinone-HCL.

_____________________________________________________________________________
Sources of items:
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
EPHEDRINE pills- Sadly, GNC (General Nutrition Centers) corporate stores no
longer carry "Revive" (ephedrine-HCL pills). The franchise stores are selling
what they have left in stock and will no longer carry the straight ephedrine
pills. They will only carry the crap with guaifenesin added. It looks like
mail order will be the only possible source. Anybody ordering through the
mail will probably have their name and address recorded and possibly sent to
the DEA.

TOLUENE- Available at most hardware stores. One brand is called "Toluol" from
Parks. TOLUENE is also called METHYLBENZENE.

LYE- Available at most hardware stores. Even Safeway has it. One brand is
"Red Devil Lye" which is used to unclog grease clogs in drains.

CONCENTRATED HCL and CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID are pretty cheap. When bought
in 2-liter bottles (reagent grade) they're about $20 each. HCl, also called
MURIATIC ACID, is available as a concrete cleaner in most lumber yards. Also
used to adjust pH in swimming pools. H2SO4, aka Battery Electrolyte,
obtainable in quart to 5-gallon size containers from automotive supply
houses. This is a dilute acid which must be concentrated by pouring into
large pyrex containers and boiling the water off for many minutes. It has
reached the point of 98% concentration when the liquid stops boiling and
starts fuming off with the release of white clouds of gas (SO3, SULFUR
TRIOXIDE). Bottle while still hot as conc. H2SO4 is hygroscopic (it sucks
water out of the air and becomes dilute again). DO NOT BREATHE SO3 GAS! It
eats out your lungs, just as HCl GAS does.

CHROMIUM TRIOXIDE (CHROMIC OXIDE) (CrO3)- Very common oxidizer. Comes in
powder form. Less than $20 for 100 grams. Since it can be recycled, someone
would never have to purchase large quantities of it. Enough to use as a
reagent and a supply to supplement the losses incured during use would be
enough.

Glass tubing- About $2 per tube (1/4 inch) at chemistry supply outlets. Bent
into different forms slowly and carefully while heating with blow torch.
Glass tubing also used in salt water aquariums. Also for neon signs. Many
sources for glass tubing from veterinary to dairy, from industrial to hobby.
Easy to find if you know how to look.

_____________________________________________________________________________
CREDITS
~~~~~~~
"Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture" by Uncle Fester was used as a
reference. Information about it is in the beginning of this article.

Technical assistance was provided by Steve J. Quest.
_____________________________________________________________________________

Im no chemist but I follow direction well. However besides the above My yeild is way down.
The first few times I used 1000 30mg
pseudoephedrine HCL pills and only ended up with about 3.5 grams of cat.
Yeild has gotten worse with each attempt.
Anyone who has tried this care to critique my methods

1. 1000 pseudoephedrine HCL pills (30mg) disolved in 300ml water. Bring to a
boil,and let settle. Filter off some of the water leaving paste behind.
2. Add more water and repeat step 1. Filter off top and add to already
filtered material until the paste has no bitter taste to it..
I end up with about 800ml of water. I don't let the temp pass 50c so I don't really
boil the mix.

2.Add 20 grams potassium dichromate. stirring constantly.
This was hard to come by and unless I mail order it looks like I won't be able to get
any more of this. Someone mentioned photo supply but several calls in the bostonarea left me wonderiif it is used for photography at all. None of the people
I talked to had it on thier list.

3.Slowly add concentrated sulfuric acid.
One method calls for 3ml per gram pseudoephedrine HCL (90ml)
another method says 42ml
I have tried both.
I add this slow enough to keep the mix temp below 50C.

4.leave this for several hours constantly stirring. It gets very hot from
the reaction.

5.Put container in ice bath and while stirring slowly add lye until strongly
basic (ph 11) stir this for 1 hour.

6.add naptha to the mixture in the sep funnel
and shake until my arms hurt ~2 minutes. Let settle and syphon off naptha.
repeat 4 times.

7.Put naptha in a sep funnel with 200 ml water and shake. Let settle
and pour off water.

8. bubble hcl gas through the naptha and filter crystals.

I make my own gas.
00g salt +30%hcl in a wide bottom flask. Slowly drip sulfuric acid into mix.
If i use muriatic acid for this I get many bubbles in the mix that
would eventually bubble into naptha/cat mix if not careful.
reagent grade hcl (harder to get) doesn't do this?

The first time I did the naptha clouded up and then crystals began to appear
Quite beautiful to watch. I used my vacuum settup to separate crystals and then
set crystals on glass plate to dry. They changed from white paste to
yellow/amber in color and seemed to evaporate to less than half a gram.

My second and third attempt was even less encouraging. All I got was milky
colored naptha with no precipate. That was another reason I thought heat was
destroying the cat but last night keeping the to 50c or below all I got was
a cloudy mix and after several minutes of bubbling hcl gas through it
there was no precipitate. Very frustrating.

Early attempts at this step I put the naptha/cat mix in a sep funnel,
added 30%hcl and shook till my arms hurt. Pour off the water/hcl and
evaporate under low heat.The instructions said to wait until it got milky,
put in freezer for 15 minutes, then filter off crystals and wash with naptha.
This was very difficult and time consuming. The mix never got milky and after
eventualy evaporating all the liquid I ended up with a dark colored paste
that would stay hard under heat but as soon as I removed it it became a
sticky paste again. From what I have read, (I have noone to discuss this
with) sulfuric acid will absorb the moisture in the air so I thought
prehaps there was still hcl in the mix and it was absorbing moisture
from the air. I'm only guessing. I would have thought the hcl would have
evaporated with the water/naptha mix leaving only the cat.

I have talked to two other people on the net but neither do more than ask
questions or agree with my methods. I must be missing something as my
yeild is so low and my results have been poor.

Also the cat high is really great. I don't know how much I do.
two small lines every so often until I start to buzz. When I do hit it though
it is a nice buzz. The cat did not give me a rush. I felt powerful, strong, euphoric
over the beauty of life. My mind could focus very well and seemed to be
able to connect abstract thought into coherent patterns. I am learning the
guitar in my spare time and under the influence of the cat I wrote several
songs. Sitting playing my guitar a melody would just leap from my fingers
and the words would pour out as if I were reading it from a script. Nothing
profound but enjoyable emotional music pouring out of me faster than
I could write it down... or was that the mushrooms Im growing...

Too much and my heart hits the hyway at well over 100bpm. Not to pleasant.

So the million dollar questions is what am I doing wrong?

>1. 1000 pseudoephedrine HCL pills (30mg) disolved in 300ml water. Bring to a
>boil,and let settle. Filter off some of the water leaving paste behind.

Boiling will decompose some of the ephedrine. Don't let it boil.
It will dissolve just fine, it just takes alittle longer.

>3.Slowly add concentrated sulfuric acid.
> One method calls for 3ml per gram pseudoephedrine HCL (90ml)
> another method says 42ml

42 ml is WAY OVER THERE!!! stick to 3, if it's concentrated. Else add
more. It's not critical, except you should go below Ph 3. (approx.)
Too acidic an environment will decompose your ephedrine and cat.

>5.Put container in ice bath and while stirring slowly add lye until strongly
>basic (ph 11) stir this for 1 hour.

Nope. Add lye untill mixture turns brright grrreen. This happens at around
Ph = 8. Adding more lye will do nothing, except make the next step more
difficult.

In article <[email protected]> [email protected] (Mark Thompson) writes:
>[Various items about the Qat leaf (aka "Khat") being illegal...]

>This is pretty strange, since you can buy the purified active alkaloid
>that's present in Khat, Ephedrine, over the counter in most truck stops
>and gas station mini markets along the interstate highways in the
>Southwestern US, as well as mail order ephedrine tablets through
>ads in nationally published magazines.

Actually, the main active component of khat is cathinone (S-alpha-
aminopropiophenone), which looks like amphetamine with a carbonyl
group replacing a methylene group on the side chain. Khat also
contains cahine and norephedrine but these are less potent. See,
for example, Geisshusler & Brenneisen's "The content of psychoactive
phenylpropyl- and phenylpentenyl- khatamines in Catha edulis
Forsk of different origin," _J. Ethnopharm. 1987, 19: 269-277.

>I've also heard that Khat leaves become inactive when dried. This was
>mentioned in an article I read several years ago discussing the use of
>Khat in Yemen - it was mentioned in passing that Khat had no value as
>an item of export because it had to be chewed fresh.

This is true. It would also seem to be evidence against the idea
that ephedrine, a fairly stable molecule, is the active component in khat.

-------------
MORE CAT INFO
-------------

AU - Glennon RA
AU - Yousif M
AU - Naiman N
AU - Kalix P
TI - Methcathinone: a new and potent amphetamine-like agent.
AB - The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effect of
N-monomethylation of phenylisopropylamine derivatives on amphetamine-
like activity. In tests of stimulus generalization using rats trained
to discriminate 1.0 mg/kg of (+)-amphetamine from saline, the N-
monomethyl derivatives of 1-(X-phenyl)-2-aminopropane, where X = 2,4-
dimethoxy (2,4-DMA), 3,4-dimethoxy (3,4-DMA), 2,4,5-trimethoxy
(2,4,5,-TMA), and 2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy (MMDA-2), did not
produce amphetamine-appropriate responding at the doses evaluated.
However, the N-monomethyl derivative of cathinone (i.e.,
methcathinone), like cathinone, resulted in stimulus generalization.
Further studies with this agent revealed that (a) in the amphetamine-
trained animals, methcathinone (ED50 = 0.37 mg/kg) is more potent
than racemic cathinone or racemic amphetamine (ED50 = 0.71 mg/kg in
both cases), (b) methcathinone is capable of inducing release of
radioactivity from [3H]dopamine-prelabeled tissue of rat caudate
nucleus in a manner similar to that observed with cathinone,
amphetamine, and methamphetamine, and © methcathinone is more
potent than cathinone as a locomotor stimulant in mice as determined
by their effect on spontaneous activity. The results of the present
study provide evidence for a structural analogy between the
prototypic psychostimulants amphetamine/methamphetamine and
cathinone/methcathinone, and lend further support to the concept that
amphetamine and cathinone correspond in their pharmacological
effects.
SO - Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1987 Mar;26(3):547-51
DP - 1987 Mar
TA - Pharmacol Biochem Behav
PG - 547-51
IP - 3
VI - 26
IS - 0091-3057
UI - 87204443

AU - Goldstone MS
TI - 'Cat': methcathinone--a new drug of abuse [letter]
AB - [No Abstract Available]
SO - JAMA 1993 May 19;269(19):2508
DP - 1993 May 19
TA - JAMA
PG - 2508
IP - 19
VI - 269
IS - 0098-7484
UI - 93253905
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